The Frontline States in 1990

This seldom seen 1988 film about art and culture in Mozambique, ‘The Deeper Image’, written by Albie Sachs and directed by Sol Carvalho, gave voice to those resisting aggression across the Frontline States. It features the wood sculptor Govane, the TPU Cultural Group of bus drivers singing Makwaela, and the internationally famous artist, Malangatana.

At Zimbabwe’s independence in 1980, the Southern African Coordination Conference (SADCC) was formed by the Frontline States (and joined by Malawi, Lesotho, Swaziland and Namibia):

Click map for a larger image.
Attack by armed bandits on the Xinavane Hospital in Gaza Province, Mozambique (photograph by Lucas Ganhao, 1988)